**WARNING:** This page calculates the maximum bias as a function of confounding strength, which is

**not** the E-value.

To compute an E-value,

click here. If you have substantive knowledge on the strength of the relationships between the unmeasured confounder(s) and the exposure and outcome, you can use these numbers to calculate the bias factor. Let RR

_{UD} denote the maximum risk ratio for the outcome, conditional on the observed covariates, comparing any two categories of the unmeasured confounders and taken within either exposure group. Let RR

_{EU} denote the maximum risk ratio for any specific level of the unmeasured confounders comparing those with and without exposure, with adjustment already made for the measured covariates.